Day 22: Operator Overloading

Today’s gift is something I complain about a lot. Not because it’s a problem in Perl 6, but because Java doesn’t have it: operator overloading, and the definition of new operators.

Perl 6 makes it easy to overload existing operators, and to define new ones. Operators are simply specially-named multi subs, and the standard multi-dispatch rules are used to determine what the most appropriate implementation to call is.

A common example, which many of you may have seen before, is the definition of a factorial operator which mimics mathematical notation:

multi sub postfix:<!>(Int $n) {
  [*] 1..$n;

say 3!;

The naming convention for operators is quite straightforward. The first part of the name is the syntactic category, which is prefix, postfix, infix, circumfix or postcircumfix. After the colon is an angle bracket quote structure (the same kind of thing often seen constructing lists or accessing hash keys in Perl 6) which provides the actual operator. In the case of the circumfix operator categories, this should be a pair of bracketing characters, but all other operators take a single symbol which can have multiple characters in it. In the example above, we define a postfix operator ! which functions on an integer argument.

You can exercise further control over the operator’s parsing by adding traits to the definition, such as tighter, equiv and looser, which let you specify the operator’s precedence in relationship to operators which have already been defined. Unfortunately, at the time of writing this is not supported in Rakudo so we will not consider it further today.

If you define an operator which already exists, the new definition simply gets added to the set of multi subs already defined for that operator. For example, we can define a custom class, and then specify that they can be added together using a custom infix:<+>:

class PieceOfString {
  has Int $.length;

multi sub infix:<+>(PieceOfString $lhs, PieceOfString $rhs) {$lhs.length + $rhs.length));

Obviously, real-world examples tend to be rather more complex than this, involving multiple member variables. We could also check our pieces of string for equality:

multi sub infix:<==>(PieceOfString $lhs, PieceOfString $rhs --> Bool) {
  $lhs.length == $rhs.length;

In which case we’re really just redispatching to one of the built-in variants of infix:<==>. At the time of writing this override of == doesn’t work properly in Rakudo.

One thing you might want to do which you probably shouldn’t do with operator overloading is operating things like prefix:<~>, the stringification operator. Why not? Well, if you do that, you won’t catch every conversion to Str. Instead, you should give your class a custom Str method, which is what would usually do the work:


augment class PieceOfString {
  method Str {
    '-' x $.length;

This will be called by the default definition of prefix:<~>. Methods which have the names of types are used as type conversions throughout Perl 6, and you may commonly wish to provide Str and Num for your custom types where it makes sense to do so.

Thus overriding prefix:<~> makes little sense, unless you actually want to change its meaning for your type. This is not to be recommended, as programmers in C++ and other languages with operator overloading will be aware. Changing the conventional semantics of an operator for a custom type is not usually something which ends well, leads to confusion in the users of your library and may result in some unpleasant bugs. After all, who knows what operator behaviour the standard container types are expecting? Trample on that, and you could be in a great deal of trouble.

New semantics are best left for new operators, and fortunately, as we have seen, Perl 6 allows you to do just that. Because Perl 6 source code is in Unicode, there are a great variety of characters available for use as operators. Most of them are impossible to type, so it is expected that multicharacter ASCII operators will be the most common new operators. For an example of a Unicode snowman operator, refer back to the end of Day 17.